# Download A Guided Tour of Relational Databases and Beyond by Mark Levene BSc, PhD, George Loizou BA, PhD (auth.) PDF

By Mark Levene BSc, PhD, George Loizou BA, PhD (auth.)

Database thought is now in a mature country, and this publication addresses vital extensions of the relational database version akin to deductive, temporal and object-oriented databases. It offers an summary of database modelling with the Entity-Relationship (ER) version and the relational version delivering the pivot on which the fabric revolves. the most physique of the booklet specializes in the first achievements of relational database idea, together with question languages, integrity constraints, database layout, comput capable queries and concurrency keep an eye on. crucial extensions of the relational version are coated in separate chapters. This e-book can be worthwhile to 3rd 12 months desktop technological know-how undergraduates and postgraduates learning database thought, and also will be of curiosity to researchers and database practitioners who wish to be aware of extra concerning the principles underlying relational dat abase administration structures and the issues that confront database researchers.

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**Example text**

E. e. e. the countably infinite set of all finite sequences of symbols from "E, by"E*. A set of strings over "E, namely any subset of"E*, is called a language. Since languages are sets, they can be combined via the set operations of union, intersection and difference. If L is a language, then L, the complement of L, is given by "E* - L. 9. Background Material I Input tape . 10 Adeterministic finite automaton we can define the concatenation of two languages over I;, that is, if Ll> L2 are languages over I; then their concatenation is L = L\ 0 L2, or simply L\L2, defined by L = {w I w =x 0 y, or simply w = xy, for some x E L\ and y E L2}, where 0 stands for the concatenation of strings x and y, namely the leading part of w comes from x and the trailing part from y.

We next describe a general language L, which comprises nonlogical symbols and logical symbols. The nonlogical symbols of L are: propositional constants T, F, propositional variables p, q, r, ... , (individual) variables x, y, z, . , (individual) constants a, b, c, ... , functions and predicates (also called relations). The logical symbols of L are: the logical connectives and the two quantifiers; often equality (=) is also taken to be a logical symbol, in which case it is interpreted as identity.

Intersection: Given any two sets X and Y, their intersection, denoted by n, is given by X nY= {z I Z E X and ZEn. Union: Similarly, the union, denoted by u, is given by xu Y = {z I Z E X or Z E Y}. At times when no ambiguity arises X U Y is abbreviated just to XY. e. {}, is denoted by 0. This could be given by 0= {x I x =/:x}. That there is only one such set follows vacuously from the axiom of extensionality. 30 Chapter 1. Introduction A set with a single element is called a singleton, and a singleton, say {A}, is at times abbreviated simply to A.