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By Georg von Hevesy

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The cloud sponding to 34 003 0-05 Thickness of Aluminium FIG. 18. Absorption of 009 0-07 in Homogeneous (v/c = Oil 0-15 gtn /cm* jS-Rays in Aluminium, 0-831). photograph (Fig. 20, Plate II) shows two mean ranges of 0-8 and 158 cm. at normal pressure and room temperature. We are here dealing with 'true' ranges, or the real lengths of path traversed by the electrons before they are completely stopped. The curves that represent the dependence of the logarithm of the ionization current on the thickness of material traversed, or the logarithmic absorption curves for j3-rays, are generally straight lines.

3-RAY SPECTRA 41 and the density of the absorbing material is practically independent of the material. The stopping power of an atom is roughly proportional to the atomic number, but more accurate investigation reveals a periodicity of the stopping power. -rays can also be shown by cloud photographs. Thus the j8-rays from RaD comprise two strong j3-ray groups having velocities correand 39 per cent, of the velocity of light, and having energies corresponding to 3 1 ,000 and 43,000 volts respectively.

In helium about 16 per cent, In Table 7 are shown the amounts of energy, expressed TABLE in electron- 7 Ionization Potentials of different Gases Gas Hydrogen Helium . Nitrogen Oxygen Argon volts, . which are necessary to produce a pair of ions in certain gases, together with the ionization potentials of these gases. The number of pairs of ions produced by an H-particle per cm. of its path is only one-quarter of that produced by an a-particle of the same velocity. As already mentioned on p. 20, the counting of scintillations, in addition to ionization measurements, plays a very important part in the detection of a-particles.

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