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Household energy is largely biomass (Figure 11). energy. In towns and cities, biomass comprises mainly domestic waste and competes with modern forms of energy. Suburban areas are often far from biomass sources, while modern forms of energy are also often poorly supplied. The IEA estimates that 89 per cent of the population of sub-Saharan Africa use biomass as energy for all their needs (mainly lighting, cooking and heating). Consumption of biomass varies by region and is more intense in the countryside, where it is more available compared with other sources of The general absence of property titles to forested areas where firewood is gathered makes people wrongly see these places as sources of “free” material and leads Figure 11 - Structure of Energy Consumption in Africa and the World Electricity 8% Coal 4% 25% Petroleum Africa 4% 59% Gas Biomass Heat Electricity 16% 3% Coal 7% 41 Biomass 44% 14% Solar, Tide, Wind, etc.

The market structure was therefore dominated by state-owned national power utilities with legally endowed monopolies and vertically integrated supply chains. National, state or municipal governments traditionally owned the three components of the industry from generation to transmission (high-tension grid to move electricity from generation to the distribution centres) and distribution (low voltage grid and transformers to distribute electricity to consumers). Over the past two decades there has been an increasing awareness that state ownership, in the absence of forces of competition or profit incentives to improve performance, leads to excessive costs, low service quality, poor investment decisions and lack of innovation.

And L. ” in Social Science and Medecine, and Pritchett, L. and L. Summers (1996), “Wealthier is Healthier”, in Journal of Human Ressources. © AfDB/OECD 2004 African Economic Outlook 31 Overview Table 5 - Progress Towards Achieving Millennium Development Goals Indicator Goal 1 Goal 2 Goal 3 Goal 4 Goal 7** Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality Ensure environmental sustainability Target Female secondary schooling ratio to male ratio Under five mortality rates Access to improved safe water On track Achieved ..

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