Download American Confluence: The Missouri Frontier from Borderland by Stephen Aron PDF

By Stephen Aron

Within the middle of North the United States, the Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers come jointly, uniting waters from west, north, and east on a trip to the south. this can be the area that Stephen Aron calls the yank Confluence. Aron's leading edge e-book examines the heritage of that quarter -- a house to the Osage, a colony exploited via the French, a brand new frontier explored via Lewis and Clark -- and focuses at the region's transition from a spot of overlapping borderlands to 1 of oppositional border states. American Confluence is a full of life account that may pride either the beginner historian.

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Extra resources for American Confluence: The Missouri Frontier from Borderland to Border State (History of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier)

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All remained mindful of the possibility that, if not the Mississippi, then perhaps one of its western tributaries might prove the long desired waterway to the Pacific. ” That term meant “muddy water,” which seemed to Marquette and subsequent French explorers an apt description for a river whose turbid color contrasted sharply with and then disturbed the Mississippi’s clearer flow. ” From these Indians, who Marquette knew as the Missouri (“people of the canoes”), the Jesuit learned that one of the tributaries of the Pekitanoui flowed out of a small lake.

Under pressure from Illinois Indians, who also crossed the river to hunt these lands, the Osages had moved west and south. Relocating their towns during the seventeenth century along what came to be called the Osage River, the Osages gained a buffer against attacks from the east. 30 Being between became the central fact of Osage life. Ecologically, as has been noted, the Osages adjusted their subsistence schedule to make use of the resources of both woodlands and grasslands. With firearms from French traders, Osage hunters and warriors could control game-rich territories to the west, whose Indian inhabitants—Wichita, Caddo, Pawnee, Kansa, and Quapaw—had less access to European-manufactured weapons.

Westering again brought gradual change, however: as hunting became more prominent, leadership, at least on the hunt, passed to individuals chosen for their particular skills. What stayed the same was the Osages’ commitment to sharing, reciprocity, and limited material accumulations. In buffalo hunting, for example, the man who killed an animal claimed it. Successful hunters, however, did not hoard their take. For one thing, Osage hunters recognized that theirs was a communal activity and that killing game required coordination among groups of men, while preparing it depended on the assistance of groups of women.

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