Download An American Genocide: The United States and the California by Benjamin Madley PDF
By Benjamin Madley
among 1846 and 1873, California’s Indian inhabitants plunged from possibly 150,000 to 30,000. Benjamin Madley is the 1st historian to discover the whole volume of the slaughter, the involvement of nation and federal officers, the taxpayer funds that supported the violence, indigenous resistance, who did the killing, and why the killings ended. This deeply researched ebook is a complete and chilling historical past of an American genocide.
Madley describes pre-contact California and precursors to the genocide earlier than explaining how the Gold Rush stirred vigilante violence opposed to California Indians. He narrates the increase of a state-sanctioned killing computer and the huge societal, judicial, and political help for genocide. Many participated: vigilantes, volunteer country militiamen, U.S. military infantrymen, U.S. congressmen, California governors, and others. The kingdom and federal governments spent not less than $1,700,000 on campaigns opposed to California Indians. in addition to comparing govt officers’ culpability, Madley considers why the slaughter constituted genocide and the way different attainable genocides inside of and past the Americas may be investigated utilizing the tools offered during this groundbreaking book.
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Extra info for An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe, 1846-1873
45 Other, smaller disease outbreaks followed the 1833 epidemic as California became more tightly knit into the transpacific trade networks that brought increasing numbers of disease-bearing ships from distant ports. As in other parts of the Americas, smallpox proved both highly contagious and extremely lethal to Native Americans. In 1837, smallpox arrived at Fort Ross—likely from Russian Alaska—spread east and killed as many as 10,000 California Indians, including many Pomo, Wappo, and Nomlaki people, in what is known as the Miramontes Epidemic.
In 1773, Pedro Fages charged a trio of soldiers with raping three California Indian girls, one of whom subsequently died. Yet Governor Fages himself may have been guilty of raping a California Indian child. In 1785, his wife formally declared having caught him “physically on top of . . ” The girl was eleven years old. 29 32 California Indians before 1846 When Spanish authorities did punish colonists for sexually assaulting California Indians, the sentences were less severe than for similar crimes committed against non-Indians.
Killings of four or fewer California Indians appear only when part of broader systematic local violence. Other wise, they are listed in appendixes 1 and 2. Incidents in which perpetrators killed ten or more California Indians appear in the text and are listed in appendixes 1 or 3. Likewise, reported killings of non-Indians by Indians—which total fewer than 1,400—appear in Appendix 4. Tables providing death toll estimates of selected major massacres appear in Appendix 5. Appendix 6 contains information on California state militia campaigns, and Appendix 7 does the same for US Army operations.