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By Tenney Frank

Passenger fares appear to us to were very low. Passengers notwithstanding seem to have been answerable for their very own sustenance, the quarters have been most likely faraway from sumptuous and naturally demise by way of shipwreck not like lack of freight entailed no monetary loss to the provider. -from "Chapter XVI: trade" during this vintage work-an enlargement of an previous 1920 edition-a revered classical pupil sketches the commercial lifetime of the Roman tradition throughout the republican interval and into the fourth century of the empire. although later books unfairly supplanted it, this quantity is still an outstanding creation to the capital, trade, exertions, and of the instant forerunner of recent civilization. In transparent, readable language, Frank explores: .agriculture in early Latium .the upward thrust of the peasantry .Roman coinage .finance and politics .the "plebs urbana" .the beginnings of serfdom .and even more. American historian TENNEY FRANK (1876-1939) used to be professor of Latin at Bryn Mawr collage and Johns Hopkins college, and likewise wrote Roman Imperialism (1914) and A background of Rome (1923).

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6. The festival of the Vinalia was recognized in the calendar of the regal period, but wine was not much used in the oldest cults. At the time of Pyrrhus the vineyards of the Alban hills are mentioned, Pliny, N. H. XIV, 12. In classical times the vine was cultivated farther down into the plains than it is to-day, for it is mentioned as a product even of Ardea (Colum. III, 9), Gabii (Galen, 6, p. 334), and other places now used solely for grain or pasture land. The olive was imported later, its culture being connected with Castor and Pollux.

While this change was in process the farmers naturally sought for remedies. There was scarcity of manure because during the very intensive tillage when every acre was in use it had not been profitable to keep cattle, since beef was rarely served as food, and horses were not in general use. When, however, many farmers found the loam too thin for further cultivation they had no choice but to seed their fields into pasture land, since turf could at least protect whatever loam remained. A few oxen were needed as draft animals, and the wealthy lords of the city provided some market for the meat.

When we consider however that Italy was poor in gold, that the purpose of the issue was to provide as much currency as possible at a time of severest stress, we cannot but conclude that the rate was moderate. It is of course unfortunate that the decimal system was abandoned, but it is difficult to see how in such a crisis the state without the aid of a well developed credit system could have proceeded more wisely to keep its metal in circulation, to expand its currency to meet enormous demands, and still to hold its issues in three metals at market rates when the exigencies of the war had raised the commodity price of copper.

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