Download Analog Circuit Design Techniques at 0.5V (Analog Circuits by Shouri Chatterjee, K.P. Pun, Nebojša Stanic, Yannis PDF

By Shouri Chatterjee, K.P. Pun, Nebojša Stanic, Yannis Tsividis, Peter Kinget

This publication tackles demanding situations for the layout of analog built-in circuits that function from ultra-low energy provide voltages (down to 0.5V). assurance demonstrates the sign processing circuit and circuit biasing methods throughout the layout of operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs). those amplifiers are then used to construct analog process services together with non-stop time clear out and a pattern and carry amplifier.

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3 On-chip biasing circuits for the gate-input OTA In this section we discuss how the gate-input OTA can be biased reliably over process, supply voltage and temperature. Similar techniques can be adopted to bias the 30 2 Fully Differential Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) Fig. 11: (a) Chip micro-graph of a gate-input OTA. (b) Gate-input OTA layout. body-input OTA. For proper operation, the gate-input OTA in Fig. 9 requires three biasing voltages: Vbn , the voltage to bias the bodies of device pairs M1 , M5 , M8 , M12 ; VL , to bias the level-shifting current source IL and maintain a process and temperature independent voltage drop across R1A , R1B ; and VNR , the voltage to bias the bodies of the cross coupled pair, M4 , in the first stage of the amplifier and set the DC gain.

4 V. To lower the VT , the body of the input devices M1A and M1B is forward biased. The ratio of the transconductance of M1A and M1B to the total transconductance of M2A and M2B sets the common-mode gain. In the process used, the pMOS transconductance is not sufficiently large compared to the nMOS transconductance to obtain a low common-mode gain. Therefore a common-mode feed-forward cancellation path [66], [67] is added, as shown in Fig. 8(b), through M5A , M5B , M6 and M3A , M3B . In M3A , M3B and M6 , the gate and the body are connected to each other to obtain a forward bias across the body-source junctions; this pushes these devices towards moderate inversion.

In order to turn the input devices of the OTA on, the virtual ground common level, Vcm,vg , needs to be set as high as possible. Such a common level can be maintained by a resistor, Rb , shown in Fig. 2 Gate-input OTA 25 overall gain of the circuit [4, 17], as long as: Rf ≪ A · (Ri Rf Rb ) where A is the open-loop DC gain of the amplifier. 4 V, Rb is given by: Rb = 2/3 · (Ri Rf ) Thus, a gate-input low voltage OTA can be used with the signal common-mode voltage at VDD /2, and yet maintain the OTA input devices in moderate inversion.

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