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By L. Mázor
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Extra info for Analytical Chemistry of Organic Halogen Compounds
The reaction is not specific for the three halogens mentioned, but copper(I) fluoride is not volatile, so that the test cannot be used for the detection of fluorine. Positive tests are obtained with all compounds that produce hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen cyanate or hydrogen thiocyanate during the test. Sulphur (32) compounds also interfere, and it has been suggested , that carboxylic acids and all compounds which yield carbon monoxide during decomposition give positive Beilstein tests. d. Heat to bright redness in a Bunsen flame, dip while hot into finely powdered copper(II) oxide, reheat until the powder adheres well to the wire and no green colour is imparted to the flame.
Hal'© - YH + ^ C = C ( ^ + Hal© Negatively charged or neutral species can act as Y. In the ΕχθΒ mechanisms the proton leaves the molecule before the halogen, with the formation of an intermediate a n i o n : 1. Y© + H - C - C - H a l I I I I slow \ 2. © C - C - H a l — > ) C = C ( κ I I ©C-C-Hal I I / + Hal© x Reactions proceeding by a radical mechanism will be discussed in connection with thermal dehalogenation of organic halogen compounds. 46 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS 4.
Halides), promote the Ex reaction. In relation to these, the actual halogen atom and the strength or concentration of the base applied have hardly any influence. The reaction may also proceed, however, by an E2 mechanism: C H 3 C R 2 B r + OH© -> C H 2 C R 2 + Br© + H 2 0 The proton is accepted by the nucleophilic agent; the halogen simultaneously leaves as an anion. Therefore, the p r o t o n affinity of the solvent is of great importance and the reaction rate is strongly dependent on the strength and concentration of the base.