Download Biotic Response to Global Change: The Last 145 Million Years by Stephen J. Culver (Editor), Peter F. Rawson (Editor) PDF

By Stephen J. Culver (Editor), Peter F. Rawson (Editor)

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The estimated explosive energy of the impact is equivalent to 100 million Mt of TNT, or roughly 10 000 times the world's total nuclear arsenal (Ravven, 1991). The impact would have created a huge crater, for which several sites have been proposed. The one currently favoured is in the Yucatan Peninsula in the southern Gulf of Mexico (Ravven, 1991), where the 170 km diameter Chicxulub impact structure has been identi®ed. The structure is associated with andesitic igneous rocks. The evidence in favour of a catastrophic bolide impact at the K±T boundary cames from both marine and terrestrial rocks.

The creation of the Southern Ocean circumpolar gyre suppressed a signi®cant amount of the previous oceanic heat transfer to Antarctica, thereby permitting greater isolation of Antarctica from warming effects with the result that precipitation could accumulate as snow and ice. The timing of these events, rather than the uplift of Tibet and the Himalayas, are more consistent with the geochemical proxy data for overall global cooling. 2 Ocean±atmosphere interaction The oceans play a fundamental part in controlling and changing global climate.

Aptian±Mid Campanian greenhouse This interval represents the Cretaceous greenhouse world at its full development. Exceptionally high rates of oceanic crust production resulted in high sealevel stands and high atmospheric CO2 levels, perhaps eight to ten times those at present, which led in turn to high global temperatures. Maximum sea-level stands and temperatures coincided in the latest Cenomanian. There is evidence of strong latitudinal climatic zonation, including mid latitude arid belts. The latitudinal temperature gradient was low, and there is no evidence of sea-level ice at the poles.

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