Download Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam by Chouki El Hamel PDF

By Chouki El Hamel

Black Morocco: A background of Slavery, Race and Islam chronicles the experiences, id, and employer of enslaved black humans in Morocco from the sixteenth century to the start of the 20 th century. It demonstrates the level to which faith orders society but in addition the level to which the commercial and political stipulations impression the spiritual discourse and the ideology of enslavement. the translation and alertness of Islam didn't guarantee the freedom and integration of black Moroccan ex-slaves into society. It starts with the Islamic felony discourse and racial stereotypes that existed in Moroccan society top as much as the period of Mawlay Isma'il (r. 1672-1727), with a unique emphasis at the black military in the course of and after his reign. the 1st a part of the publication offers a story referring to the legal discourse on race, concubinage and slavery in addition to historic occasions and developments that aren't renowned in revealed scholarship and western contexts.  The moment a part of the e-book is conceptually formidable; it provides the reader with a deeper experience of the old and sociological implications of the tale being informed throughout an extended time period, from the seventeenth to the 20th centuries.  even though the most powerful aspect of theses chapters issues the "black army," a major section of the dialogue is the position of woman slaves.  one of many difficulties the historian faces with this sort of research is that it needs to leisure on a limited "evidentiary base." This booklet has broadened this base and clarified the importance of girl slaves relating to the military and Moroccan society at large.

Black Morocco redefines the phrases of the scholarly debate about the old nature of Moroccan slavery and proposes an original analysis of concerns relating race, concubinage and gender, with a special focus on their theoretical aspects.  The Moroccan process of racial definition was once truly "racialist" and was once in truth a curious inversion of the Western racist version.  Whereas within the western version "one drop" of black blood identifies one as black, within the Moroccan version, "one drop" of white blood identifies one as Arab (i.e., privileged).  This procedure helped create a"nationalist" Moroccan Arab majority and even as subjugated black ancestry (i.e., these with no the "one drop" of Arab blood), noticeable as having more referring to the historic antecedents of slavery.  It bargains a new paradigm for the learn of race within the zone that might rework the best way we approach and comprehend ethnicity and racial identities in North Africa and most crucially it is helping get rid of the tradition of silence -- the refusal to engage in discussions approximately slavery, racial attitudes, and gender issues.

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Additional info for Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam

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Take the example of the Qur’an’s epithet of Muhammad as the ummi Prophet. ), say: ‘I have submitted myself to God and so have those who follow me. ’”46 Ar-Razi (d. ”47 Mohamed Talbi, a contemporary Tunisian historian of Islam, explains that the word ummiyin (sing. ummi) designates goyim or gentiles. ”48 Another pertinent example of using the Qur’an to legitimize existing enduring cultural practices is the practice of polygyny. The Qur’an, in chapter 4 on women, verse 3, states: And if you have reason to fear that you might not act equitably towards orphans, then marry from among [other] women such as are lawful to you – [even] two, or three, or four: but if you have reason to fear that you might not be able to treat them with equal fairness, then [only] one – or [from among] those whom you rightfully possess (ma malakat aymanukum).

In this way God makes clear unto you His messages: for God is all-knowing, wise! (24:58). He propounds unto you a parable drawn from your own life: Would you [agree to] have some of those whom your right hands possess (ma malakat aymanukum) as [full-fledged] partners in whatever We may have bestowed upon you as sustenance, so that you [and they] would have equal shares in it, and you would fear [to make use of it without consulting] them, just as you might fear [the more powerful of] your equals?

IT DOES NOT behoove a prophet to keep captives unless he has battled strenuously on earth. You may desire the fleeting gains of this world – but God desires [for you the good of] the life to come: and God is almighty, wise (8:67). These thirty-one Qur’anic verses provided the basis for legal formulations regarding the practice of slavery and the taking of slaves for concubinage in the Islamic world. The Qur’an’s recommendations for the emancipation of enslaved people are here, too. These verses recommend gradual steps to end slavery.

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