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Additional resources for Cell Biology: A Comprehensive Treatise. Gene Expression: The Production of RNAs

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Under more stringent conditions, these same DNA's are esti­ mated to have 65, 88, and 85% single-copy sequences (McCarthy and Farquhar, 1972; McCarthy and Duerksen, 1971). While there is ambiguity about exactly what proportion of the genome should be considered unique, there is no doubt that a portion of this fraction contains the sequences of many structural genes. With the excep­ tion of histone messenger RNA's, all purified specific mRNA's have been shown to be transcribed from structural genes that are present once, or at the most, a few times per haploid genome.

Laevis and 1000 nucleotide pairs long in X. nontranscribed spacer A+T Haelll G+C Haelll Haelll Haelll Fig. 9. The structure of the repeating unit of D N A containing the genes for oocyte 5 S R N A in Xenopus laevis. The 5 S gene and G + C-rich spacer sequences are of constant length. The A + T-rich nontranscribed spacer region is of variable length and is itself com­ posed of a repeating sequence 15 nucleotide pairs long. The positions of Haelll and Hindlll restriction endonuclease recognition sites are shown by the arrows.

These two arrangements can be distinguished experimentally by measuring the proportion of D N A fragments of different sizes that reasso­ ciate with kinetics characteristic of repeated sequences and which thus contain one or more repeated sequence. If it were possible to isolate D N A of a size equal to the whole genome, the two extremes would be indistin­ guishable. All molecules with either of the arrangements would contain a repeated sequence, and thus part of their denatured single strands would form a duplex structure that would bind to HAP as a reassociated duplex.

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