Download Chemistry for Protection of the Environment: 5th: by Lucjan Pawlowski, etc. PDF

By Lucjan Pawlowski, etc.

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Although this paper will not discuss pre- and primary treatments, it should be emphasized that adequate pre-treatment is a precursor to successful secondary or tertiary treatment. In order to meet stringent effluent criteria, three alternatives exist as in most cases a conventional secondary plant is presently in operation. Fig. 1. Alternative technologies for removal of priority pollutants Tertiary treatment or a d d a n processes can be applied to the existing technology. Thja usually consists of coagulation, filtration, granular carbon adsorption, or chemical oxidation.

These being so, any optimation in this domain comprises not so much a single separation procedure, as multiaperation integrated systems. In a publication of ours, presented in Alghero, 1976 [32 1 , we proposed a system combining various techniques -- including membranes. The objective was to optimize both the technology and economy of brackish water desalination. At the present time, integrated systems are thought of as being the right path for process engineers to follow in the future. A few attempts to design such systems have already been reported.

Such membranes prevent t h e outflow of the biomass, thus improving the efficiency of the system. A particular type of membrane reactor which has come into use is equippped with a charged membrane system. The reactor has been designed for the conversion of energy. The built-in active systems are of semiconductor type and differ diametrically from the permselective membranes involved. in electrodialysis or Donnan dialysis. The process is carried out with luminous energy as driving force, which may yield the splitting of a chemical compound, and -- most frequently -- with water as t h e substrate for degradation.

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