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By Sheridan Muspratt

This ancient ebook could have a variety of typos and lacking textual content. dealers can obtain a loose scanned reproduction of the unique booklet (without typos) from the writer. no longer listed. no longer illustrated. Excerpt: it's attainable to build coolers by way of easily lining a wood cistern with lead: such are used for crystallizing quite a few salts; however it is a question whether or not they may be suggested, inasmuch because the cooling has to be very sluggish, because of the undesirable engaging in caliber of the wooden which varieties the coating to the lead. In such a lot vitriol works coolers are utilized in reference to the pan or pans. believe they're referred to as No. 1 and No. 2, the mode of operating resem bles that of the pans first defined; that's, No. 1 is meant to be cool sufficient to undergo bottling. while this is often performed, the contents of the higher cooler, or No. 2, is now run into No. 1, whereas No. 2 is now able to obtain a clean volume from the decrease concentrating pan. it is going to therefore be visible that during operating a collection of concentrating pans and their accompaniments, 4 phases can be famous. the higher pan in part concentrates the acid prepared for the decrease pan, which then completes the focus. From this reduce pan it truly is run into the higher cooler, the place it loses the better part of its warmth, and at last it truly is run into the decrease cooler, the place it continues to be till relatively chilly or approximately so. Hie approach simply defined is in consistent use in a few works, yet isn't in any respect common, every one producer proscribing the level of his gear to his desires. The association most commonly obvious, specially in small works, is a unmarried boiling-down pan, because it is technically termed; the warmth passing underneath it up one flue and returning to an identical finish down one other, and then it passes to the chimney. This pan is followed by way of one cooler. The uncooked acid from the chamber is administered into this unmarried pan, the place it's centred as much as the right kind element, and then it really is run into the cooler, the place it remains until eventually chilly; and ...

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David Mowery: This is a good question, and I do not have an easy answer to it. Some universities have expressed concern that a focus on income, on licensing, and licensing with a view to maximizing income will have a negative effect on relationships with firms in other sectors such as nonbiotechnology. But there is a high-level administrative pronouncement to this effect, combined with a set of internal norms for evaluation and for rewarding the technology managers that continue to focus heavily on income because, of course, it’s what can be counted.

But this is a very tentative and preliminary conclusion. In some spheres, however, such as biotechnology research tools, including research materials or genetic material, the invention is itself an input to the scientific research process. If universities expand their patenting and licensing of these research tools, research results formerly placed in the public domain will be taxed by their inventors. The Cohen–Boyer patent, for example, embodies knowledge that might have been published and widely exploited by industry without a patent.

Major new weapons laboratories were created, and universities for the first time received large amounts of money to carry out research for the government. The newly created defense industry, based on mobilization of preexisting civilian industry, was given government funds to conduct and/or manage largescale military R&D. As the war wound down, R&D leaders sought ways to ensure that federal funds would continue to flow to the universities, weapons laboratories, and defense contractors. Even though the United States emerged from the war as the world’s dominant technological nation, there was concern that R&D would not be sustained to help meet the challenges of reenergizing the civilian economy, addressing unmet health needs, and meeting the emerging threat from the Soviet Union.

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