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By Bonnie N. Field, Kerstin Hamann

This booklet analyzes Spanish political events and associations in comparative theoretical point of view. fundamental subject matters are addressed: institutionalization and the distribution of institutionalization within the polity, and the connection among institutional layout and illustration.

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In other words, similar to living organisms, the degree and direction of party organizational development is limited by the available gene pool (Hellmann, 2007). If a generation effect were to be predominant, significant similarities would prevail between parties which were created in the same context and era of democratization, whereas substantial differences would exist 26 Party Development in Democratic Spain between parties which emerged out of different contexts and in different periods. Hence, parties in the older democracies in Western Europe that emerged during the “first wave” of democratization in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries would share many resemblances with one another, but would have little in common with those that emerged out of the “third wave” in Southern Europe in the 1970s, in Latin America in the 1980s, or in Eastern Europe in the 1990s.

Field and Kerstin Hamann 19 Moncloa Pacts, which outlined the transition government’s economic, social, and political reforms and included wage ceilings, were signed by the parliamentary parties but excluded unions and employers. In return for the political reforms, the unions were expected to limit strike activity and refrain from excessive wage demands. While unions did have close relationships with leftist political parties and thus some indirect influence on the substance of the pacts, they were excluded from formal participation in the negotiations.

135) concludes that in Spain, without pressure from below, reforms from above might not have succeeded. See also Maravall (1982, p. 3) and Tarrow (1995). 3. Between 1960 and 1975, ETA was responsible for 43 deaths; 65 people were killed in 1978, and in 1979, ETA violence accounted for 78 deaths, escalating to 96 in 1980 (Linz and Stepan, 1996, p. 99). 4. This is particularly the case of the PP loss of the parliamentary elections to the PSOE in 2004 following the terrorist attacks on commuter trains in Madrid.

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