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By Stephen White

The Genoa convention of April-May 1922 observed the 1st severe and sustained try to negotiate a modus vivendi among the newly verified Soviet executive in Moscow and the western capitalist nations that surrounded it. Drawing upon a variety of archival and different assets, a lot of them surprising or formerly unexplored for this objective, this research lines the evolution of Soviet-Western kinfolk from the Revolution as much as the fall of 1921, whilst the thought for a convention first started to emerge, after which considers in additional element the process preconference international relations and the lawsuits of the convention itself, as much as the early summer season of 1922. In his ultimate bankruptcy Dr White argues that the failure to unravel East-West alterations at Genoa was once brought on by quite a few situations, yet primarily to a failure of political will.

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Extra info for The Origins of Detente: The Genoa Conference and Soviet-Western Relations, 1921–1922

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Japanese troops remained in the area until the autumn of 1922. Japan's expanding naval power appeared also to threaten American interests in the Pacific until a four-power pact, embracing both countries as well as France and Great Britain, was concluded at the Washington Conference in late 1921 and early 1922. 41 Of the other 15 16 The origins of detente Allies, Belgium (and the Netherlands, a neutral during the war) had a more obvious interest in European reconstruction, but both countries had only a limited influence in international affairs.

4 per cent. In some ways more important, however, was the structure of these various debts, and in particular the differences between Britain and France in this connection. 2 million holders of Russian bonds in France, and they possessed, as a French treasury minister reminded the Genoa Conference, 'great political and electioneering influence'. British private claimants, in contrast, numbered no more than 38,000, and Italian private claimants a mere 400. 85 The negotiation of a settlement to the Russian debt question in the early 1920s, already difficult, was greatly complicated by these various circumstances.

Western governments, in the end, generally made bilateral arrangements of their own, often through the agency of the Red Cross; on 2 November 1921, for instance, it was announced that the British government was providing £250,000 worth of medical stores, clothing and tinned food to the British Red Cross for distribution in Russia, and on 3 November it was announced that the French government was allocating 6 million francs to the French Red Cross for similar purposes. 19 The Soviet note of 28 October 1921 did nonetheless appear to represent a modification and the previous Soviet position in at least one significant respect: the all-important question of the acknowledgement of debts.

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