Download The Story of Semiconductors by John W. Orton PDF
By John W. Orton
The booklet presents an summary of the attention-grabbing spectrum of semiconductor physics, units and purposes, offered from a old point of view. It covers the advance of the topic from its inception within the early 19th century to the hot millennium. Written in a full of life, casual sort, it emphasizes the interplay among natural medical push and advertisement pull, at the one hand, and among uncomplicated physics, fabrics, and units, at the different. It additionally units many of the gadget advancements within the context of platforms standards and explains how such advancements met wide-ranging buyer calls for. it really is written which will attract scholars in any respect degrees in physics, electric engineering, and fabrics technological know-how, to lecturers, teachers, and pros operating within the box, in addition to to a non-specialist clinical readership.
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Additional info for The Story of Semiconductors
Finally, we should note one other trend, the fact that crystal structure also changes as we move from Group IV materials to the I-VI compounds. These latter generally crystallize in the octahedral cubic form rather than the tetrahedral cubic structure appropriate to Si and Ge—the III-V materials are mainly tetrahedral (the structure being known as zinc blende—ZB), apart from the nitrides which crystallize in a hexagonal modification known as wurtzite (WZ), while the II-VI semiconductors vary between The story of semiconductors tetrahedral and hexagonal structure, some compounds being known in both modifications.
Public electricity supplies were based on AC generators (for reasons of efficient power distribution) and this placed a premium on the development of practical rectifiers, either as built-in sources of DC power or as battery chargers (many radio sets being battery-powered). In the context of this ‘commercial’ requirement, it is interesting to note that a suitable large area selenium rectifier had been demonstrated by Fritts as early as 1886, though it apparently lay dormant until the end of the 1920s when consumer demand stimulated a much greater level of effort into the development of practical current rectifiers.
We now recognize these two regimes as corresponding to ‘intrinsic’ and ‘extrinsic’ conduction, the strong dependence at high temperatures resulting from thermal generation across the band gap, while the low temperature behaviour is dominated by (random—that is, uncontrolled) doping effects with much smaller activation energies. It was observed that, in the high temperature regime, the Hall effect normally had a negative sign but only later could it be appreciated that this was a reflection of the fact that mobilities of electrons are usually larger than those of holes.